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Green Lipped Mussel Extract
   
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New Zeland Green Lipped Mussel Extract Biolane® GLME
Introduction Potential Benefits Composition Mode of Action Comparing GLM Extract with Glucosamine Comparing GLM Extract with NSAIDs Efficacy The Science Behind Biolane® GLME
References

Bullet

The Science Behind Biolane® GLME


Benefits of Biolane® GLME is supported by published double-blind, peer-reviewed clinical trials.
Biolane® GLME is also supported by cellular and animal research that helps explain the different mechanisms of action.

Biolane® GLM Extract covers over 20 Research studies conducted by reputable scientist and medical research institutes around the world.






Over 35 years of research has shown that Biolane® GLME is an effective anti-arthritic agent.


The Research was specifically conducted utilizing Biolane® active GLME. Due to the unique Biolane® manufacturing protocol, This research can only be applied to Biolane® GLM Extract and is not valid for other Green Lipped Mussel ingredients or products.

This section contains short summaries of the research studies that show Biolane® Extract’s effectiveness for joint health.



       
 
Gibson RG, Gibson SLM, Conway V, et al. Perna canaliculus in the treatment of arthritis. Practitioner 1980; 224: 955-60

This was the first long-term double-blind clinical study examining the effect of Biolane® Extract on 66 patients with arthritis. The results showed that Biolane® Extract was effective in treating patients with both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA). The proportion of patients benefiting from treatment with Biolane® Extract was higher in the RA than the OA group.

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Audeval B, Bouchacourt P. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the mussel Perna canaliculus (New Zealand green-lipped mussel) in gonarthrosis (arthritis of the knee). La Gazette Medicale 1986; 93 (38): 111-5

This carefully designed, placebo-controlled clinical study in 53 patients with arthritis of the knee showed that Biolane® Extract was a very effective treatment for arthritis, when judged using both objective measures (mobility) and subjective measures (patient perception of symptoms). By concentrating on patients with arthritis in just one joint (the knee) the researchers were able to eliminate the variables associated with diffuse arthritis, and study a greater number of indices of disease in more detail. The two most debilitating features of arthritis – pain and loss of function – both responded well to treatment. Interestingly, those with moderate disease showed greater improvement than those with advanced arthritis.

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Kendall RV, Lawson JW, Hurley LA. New research and a clinical report on the use of Perna canaliculus in the management of arthritis. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 2000; July: 99-111

This thorough review of the literature on Biolane® Extract described its anti-inflammatory activity, and the clinical benefits in patients with arthritis. In particular, the report highlighted that the components of Biolane® Extract included glycosaminoglycans (important constituents of joint cartilage and synovial fluid) and anti-inflammatory compounds such as glycogen, certain polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysolecithin. The authors reviewed evidence of anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of induced arthritis, and clinical studies that showed symptom relief and improvements in mobility in patients with chronic arthritis.

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Lambert M, Semark A, Grobler L. The ergogenic properties of Biolane®. Research Report by MRC/UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, UCT Medical School, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, 31st August 1998

In this study, conducted at the UCT Medical School in South Africa, the effects of Biolane® Extract on recovery from muscle injury were compared with those of placebo in 20 highly trained athletes (cyclists). The cyclists took Biolane® Extract for 3 weeks before muscle injury was induced. Peak power was greater and recovery of peak power faster in the group who were taking Biolane® Extract than in those taking placebo. This was the first study to suggest that Biolane® Extract can aid in soft tissue injury recovery in healthy individuals.

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Highton T, MacArthur A. Pilot study on the effect of New Zealand green mussel on rheumatoid arthritis. NZ Med J 1975; Mar 12: 261-2

This preliminary clinical trial did not show any benefit of Biolane® Extract in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, the study included only 6 patients, and treated them for only 6 weeks, so the patient population was too small and the study duration too short to find any therapeutic benefit. Also, the study used a crossover design in which patients received a placebo or Biolane® Extract for 6 weeks, and then crossed over to the other treatment for a further 6 weeks. This type of study design is not appropriate for assessing the effect of long-term treatment, and may be confounded by carryover effects from one treatment phase to the next.

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Caughey DE, Grigor RR, Caughey EB, et al. Perna canaliculus in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Eur J Rheum Inflam 1983; 6: 197-200

This double-blind clinical trial was conducted at Auckland Hospital in 47 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were randomised to receive Naproxen (an anti-inflammatory drug) + Biolane® Extract, or Naproxen + placebo for the first 6 weeks. Then for the following 5 weeks, the Naproxen was replaced with placebo, so that the groups were taking Biolane® Extract + placebo or two forms of placebo. This study assessed the effectiveness of Biolane® Extract by measuring how many patients stayed on the treatment. Biolane® Extract was slightly more effective than placebo in this study (but not statistically significantly so). However, when the powerful anti-inflammatory drug was withdrawn, many patients stopped treatment because of their worsening condition. This is not a surprising finding. A potential confounding factor is that patients withdrew from the study for reasons unrelated to their treatment.

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Larkin JG, Capell HA, Sturrock RD. Biolane® in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-month placebo- controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 1985; 44: 199-201

This double-blind study, conducted at the Centre for Rheumatic Disease in Glasgow, compared Biolane® Extract with a placebo in 35 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study was conducted in patients with serious rheumatic disease, whose disease was not adequately controlled with anti-inflammatory drugs. It is no surprise that they found Biolane® Extract was not effective.

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Cheras P. Vascular Mechanisms in Osteoarthritis: Rationale for Treatment with a Marine-Based Complementary Medicine, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2005, Volume 13, page S95.

Osteoarthritis can affect the body through several mechanisms, including vascular (blood vessels), which can lead to joint discomfort, pain, inflammation and cartilage breakdown. This research confirmed that Biolane® was effective against a wide range of osteoarthritis mechanisms. The study also confirmed previous research, which showed that Biolane® had several different properties that acted together to benefit the joints. Additional research related to this paper found that Biolane® had a more comprehensive range of activities than either glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate.

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Miller TE, Ormrod D. The anti-inflammatory activity of Perna canaliculus (NZ green-lipped mussel). NZ Med Journal 1980; 92: 187-93

Researchers from the University of Auckland, New Zealand, demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration (administering through the peritoneum) of Biolane® Extract significantly reduced inflammation in rats with induced arthritis. The study found that lower doses of the extract were effective if administered for several days before administering the arthritis-inducing agent. This was possibly the first indication that Biolane® Extract has a systemic effect on the course of the disease, rather than simply relieving the symptoms.

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Daum A. The influence of Biolane® (RO 49-0282/100), and fractions of Biolane®, on the established adjuvant arthritis of the rat. Roche Laboratories, Switzerland, 1976

This study demonstrated that Biolane® Extract had anti-inflammatory activity in rats with arthritis. The study also tested isolated fractions of Biolane® Extract for anti-inflammatory activity, but each of these fractions alone had no effect. This supports the argument that it is the combination of elements in Biolane® Extract (rather than a single compound) that confers its anti-inflammatory activity.

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Rainsford KD, Whitehouse MW. Gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) preparation. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res 1980; 30 (II): 2128-32

Australian scientists showed that Biolane® Extract mussel extract has a protective effect on the stomach lining; unlike common pharmaceutical agents for treating arthritis, which actually promote stomach ulceration. In addition, these scientists found that the lipid component of the extract, which was responsible for this protective effect on the stomach lining, also demonstrated a mild anti-inflammatory activity.

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Couch RAF, Ormrod DJ, Miller TE, Watkins WB. Anti-inflammatory activity in fractionated extracts of the green-lipped mussel. NZ Med Journal 1982; 95 (720): 803-6

This study, conducted at the University of Auckland, investigated the relative anti-inflammatory activity of isolated fractions of the mussel extract. The study concluded that the principal activity was due to water-soluble fractions of the extract, with secondary activity due to the lipid fraction

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Miller TE, Ormrod DJ, Findon G. Evaluation of the effect of Biolane® administration on cell- mediated immune mechanisms determined using in vitro and in vivo analysis of T lymphocyte function. Private study in the Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, 1984.

This study provided valuable evidence for the immunomodulatory (immune system changing) effect of Biolane® Extract, in particular its suppression of T-lymphocyte (a kind of white blood cell) function. It provided further evidence of the systemic effect of the mussel extract in treating arthritic disorders.

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Miller TE, Wu H. In vivo evidence for prostaglandin inhibitor activity in New Zealand green-lipped mussel extract. NZ Med Journal 1984; 97: 355-7

This study was the first to demonstrate that Biolane® Extract inhibited prostaglandin production, providing compelling evidence that this was a primary mechanism for its anti-inflammatory effect. Inhibition of prostaglandin production was demonstrated through delayed parturition (giving birth) in rats, a well-established scientific model for investigating effects on prostaglandin production.

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Kosuge T, Tsuji K, Ishida H, Yamaguchi T. Isolation of an anti-histaminic substance from green- lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus). Chem Pharm Bull 1986; 34 (11): 4825-8

This laboratory study, conducted at the Shizuoka College of Pharmacy, successfully demonstrated that a substance in Biolane® Extract has positive antihistamine and anti-inflammatory activity. The active fraction isolated by these scientists was naturally-occurring lysolecithin.

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Knaus UG, Tubar A, Wagner H. Pharmacological properties of glycogens: anti-complementary and anti-inflammatory action of mussel glycogen (Perna canaliculus). Department of Immunology Imm2, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, California, USA. Also Universities of Trieste, Italy and Munich, Germany, 1990

This study investigated the properties of glycogen extracted from the green-lipped mussel, blue mussel and other bivalve shellfish. The anti-inflammatory activity was shown to be unique to the green-lipped mussel glycogen: glycogen from the blue mussel actually exacerbated inflammation in this animal model.

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Miller TE, Dodd J, Ormrod DJ, Geddes R. Anti-inflammatory activity of glycogen extracted from Perna canaliculus (NZ green-lipped mussel). Agents Actions 1993; 38 (Special Conference issue): C139-42

Scientists extracted a polysaccharide (glycogen) from Biolane® Extract, and found that it has anti-inflammatory activity in rats with arthritis. The glycogen from Biolane® Extract also substantially reduced the migration of neutrophils (a kind of white blood cell) to the site of the inflammation.

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Cullen JC, Flint MH, Leider J. The effect of dried mussel extract on an induced polyarthritis in rats.NZ Med J 1975; 81: 260-1

This small preliminary study showed no effect of Biolane® Extract on arthritis in rats. However, in this study, Biolane® Extract was added to the rats’ food, and therefore scientists were unable to regulate the dosage the animals received. It is probable that the animals did not receive sufficient Biolane® Extract to demonstrate an effect.

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Pollard B, Guilford WG, Ankenbauer-Perkins KL, Hedderley D. Clinical efficiency and tolerance of Biolane GLME in dogs presumptively diagnosed with degenerative joints disease. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 54 (3) 114-118, 2006

This small preliminary study showed no effect of Biolane® Extract on arthritis in rats. However, in this study, Biolane® Extract was added to the rats’ food, and therefore scientists were unable to regulate the dosage the animals received. It is probable that the animals did not receive sufficient Biolane® Extract to demonstrate an effect.

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T.E. Miller MSc, PhD and HWu DVM. Study of the Teratogenic and Toxicological Potential of an Extract of Perna canaliculus Seatone® (Biolane Extract). Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand. May 1981

The placebo controlled studies were conducted to the protocol for pharmaceutical drugs using Dark Agouti rats. The Seatone fed animals were fed a formulated diet containing Seatone at 50 times the recommended dosage for humans. The results of the examinations indicated that there was evidences of delayed conception and smaller litter size but with progeny exhibiting a higher average weight in the Seatone fed group. However, there was no evidence of skeletal abnormalities or malformations.

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T E Miller MSc, PhD, DSc. Acute and sub Acute Toxicity Study on Seatone® (Biolane Extract), an extract of perna canaliculus. Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand, February 1981.

This was a placebo controlled study conducted in two phases, involving a short term very high does and a longer term high dose using Fischer rats. All animals in both phases of the experiments were alive and healthy and, even at high and very high dosages, it was found that Seatone did not exhibit acute toxicity. Due to the absence of toxic effects it was not possible to establish the LD50 for Seatone and the author concluded that Seatone does not exhibit acute toxicity

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Advisory: This is not intended for the diagnosis or treatment of medical complaints. It is for information purposes only.


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