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Omega 3 Natural Fish Oil Squalene - Deep Sea Shark Liver Oil Extract
Introduction History & Discovery Sources and Properties Occurrence in Humans Cholesterol Metabolism Cancer Antioxidant Coronary Heart Diseases Skin Care Toxicity & Dosage References

Occurrence in Humans

Squalene is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Over 60% of the ingested squalene is absorbed from the small intestine and then transported to the lymph in the form of chylomicrons into the circulatory system.
In the blood, squalene combines with low density lipoproteins and is transported to various body tissues. A major portion of the absorbed squalene is distributed to the skin.

Studies conducted on squalene in human adipose tissues show that fat tissues contain over 80% of the total squalene present and upto 10% in microsomal membranes (Koivisto & Miettinen, 1988; Stewart, 1992). Scientific evidence suggests that only microtonal membrane bound squalene (around 10% of total squalene) present in human body, is metabolically active and stimulates immune cells in the inner and outer coat of our body (Owen et al., 2004).

Squalene is present in important human tissues. The endogenous synthesis of squalene in animal body begins with the production of acetate from glucose. Acetate is converted to 3-hydroxyl-3- methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMGCoA). The HMGCoA is reduced to mevalonate.

The mevalonate is then phosphorylated in a three stage process and then decarboxylated to form delta-3- isoprenyldiphosphate. This is followed by successive additions of prenyl groups with formation of 15-carbon farnesyl phosphate. Two molecules of farnesyl diphosphates are then enzymatically joined and reduced to form squalene by an enzyme called squalene synthetase (Kelly, 1999; Reddy & Couvreur, 2009). Various steps involved in the biosynthesis of squalene are given in Fig. 2.


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