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Omega 3 Natural Fish Oil Squalene - Deep Sea Shark Liver Oil Extract
Introduction History & Discovery Sources and Properties Occurrence in Humans Cholesterol Metabolism Cancer Antioxidant Coronary Heart Diseases Skin Care Toxicity & Dosage References


K. Gopakumar* (2012)
Therapeutic Applications of Squalene - A Review
Fishery Technology 49 : 1 - 9

*Dr. K. Gopakumar

Former Deputy General (Fisheries), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India

  • Deputy Director General (Fisheries) ICAR 1997-2002.
  • Director Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kochi 1991-1997.
  • Joint Director CIFT , 1984-1991.
  • Chief Technical Advisor of FAO of UN to the Government of Philippines, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Research Manila 1994, 1995.
  • MEMBER, Indo- Pacific Fisheries Commission, Fish Technology and Marketing 19984-1998.
  • Consultant FAO of UN Fish Processing 2005.
  • Member IFAD Project Mission of UNOPS Bangkok in Bangladesh 2005 and Sri Lanka 2007 November.
  • Advisor Global Resources Management, Hong Kong/ Singapore, 2003-2007.
  • He has authored more than 125 research publications in various international journals.

  • Anon (2009) MF59 Adjuvant Fact Sheet, Novartis, June 2009. MF59-Adj-fact-sheet.pdf
    (Accessed 12 November 2011)

  • Asano, K.G., Bayne, C. K., Horsman, K.M. and Buchanan, M.U. (2002)
    Chemical composition of finger prints for gender determination. J.
    Forensic Sci. 47(4): 805-807

  • Atkins, R.C. (2002)
    Squalene: Oxygenator, Cancer fighter. Dr Atkins’ Vita- Nutrient Solution- Nature’s
    Answer to Drugs, UK Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, UK

  • Buckland, J.G., Agudo, A., Noemie Travier, N., Huerta, J.M., Cirera, L., Torm, M.J.,
    Navarro, C., Chirlaque, M.D., Moreno-Iribas, C., Ardanaz, E., Barricarte, A.,
    Etxeberria, J., Marin, P., Quirãs, J., Redondo, M. L., Larraãaga, N., Amiano, P.,
    Dorronsoro, M., Arriola, L., Basterretxea, M., Sanchez, M.J., Molina, E. And Gonzãlez,
    C.A. (2011)
    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the
    European prospective ivestigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Spain).
    British J. Nutrition. 106 (10): 1581-1591

  • Bukowski, R. (1999)
    The need for cytoprotection. Eur. J. Cancer. 32A: S2-S4

  • Chan, P., Tomilsonm, B., Leemm, C.B. and Lee, Y.S. (1996)
    Effect and safety of low dose prevastatin and squalene alone in combination in
    elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 36: 422-427

  • Clayton, R.B. and Bloch, K. (1956)
    The biological conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol. J. Biol. Chem. 218: 319

  • Das, B. (2005)
    The Science Behind Sqalene -The Human Antioxidant, 2nd edn., Toronto Medical
    Publishing, Canada

  • Das, B., Yeger, H., Baruchel, H., Freedman, M.H., Koren, G. and Baruchei, S.(2003)
    In vitro cytoprotective activity of squalene on a bone marrow versus neuroblastoma
    model of cisplatin-induced toxicity, implications in cancer chemotherapy.
    Eur. J.Cancer. 39(17): 2556-2565

  • Deprez, P.P., Volkman, J.K. and Davenport, S.R. (1990)
    Squalene content and neutral lipid composition of livers from deep-sea sharks
    caught in Tasmanian Waters. Aust. J. Mar. Fresh. Res. 41: 375-387

  • Fan S., Ho, I., Yeoh, F.L., Lin, C. and Lee, T. (1996)
    Squalene inhibits sodium arsenite-induced sister chromatid exchanges and
    micronuclei in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. Mut. Res. 368: 165-169

  • Farvin, K.H.S., Raj, A.S., Anandan, R. and Sankar, T.V. (2009a)
    Squalene- A gift from sea. Sci. India. 12: 20- 24

  • Farvin, K.H.S., Anandan, R., Kumar, S.H.S., Sussela, M., Sankar, T.V. and Nair
    P.G.V. (2009b)
    Biochemical studies on the cardioprotective effect of squalene against
    isoprenaline- induced myocardial infarction in rats. Fish. Technol. 46: 139-150

  • Gjonca, A. and Bobak, M. (1997)
    Albanian paradox- Another example of protective effect of Mediterranean life style.
    Lancet. 350: 1815-17

  • Gopakumar, K. (1997)
    Tropical Fishery Products, 190 p, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

  • Gopakumar, K. and Thankappan, T.K. (1986)
    Squalene- Its sources, uses, and industrial applications. Seafood Export J. 18(3): 17-21

  • Heller, J.H., Pasternak, V.Z., Ransom, J.P. and Heller, M.S. (1963)
    A new reticulo endothelial stimulating agent from shark livers. Nature. 199: 904-905

  • IJT (1982)
    Final report on the safety assessment of squalane and squalene. Int. J. Toxicol. 1: 37-56

  • Ikikawa, T., Umeji, M., Manabe,T., Yanoma, S., Orinoda, K. and Mizunuma, H.
    (1986) Studies on antitumor activity of squalene and its related compounds
    (Japanese). Yakugaku Zasshi. J. Pharmac. Soc. Of Japan. 106: 578-582

  • Kamimura, H., Koga, N., Oguri K., Yoshimura, H., Inoue, H., Sato, K. and Ohkubo,
    M. (1989) Studies on distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalene in dogs.
    Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, 80: 269-280

  • Kamimura, H., Koga, N., Oguri, K. and Yoshimura, H. (1992) Enhanced elimination of
    theophylline, phenobarbital and strychinine from the bodies of rats and mice by
    squalene treatment. J. Pharmacobiodyn. 15: 215-221

  • Kate, K., Cox, A.D., Hisaka, M.M., Graham, S.M., Buss, J.E. and Der, C.J. (1992)
    Isoprenoid addition to Ras protein is the critical modification for its membrane
    association and transforming activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 89: 6403–6407

  • Kelly, G.S. (1999) Squalene and its potential clinical uses. Altern. Med. Rev. 4(1): 29-36

  • Kohno, Y., Egawa, Y., Itoh, S., Nagaoka, S., Takahashi, M. and Mukai, K. (1995)
    Kinetic study of quenching reaction of singlet oxygen and scavenging reaction of
    free radical by squalene in n-butanol. Biochim.Biophys. Acta. 1256(1): 52-56

  • Koivisto, P.V.I. and Miettinen, T.A. (1988)
    Increased amount of cholesterol precursors in lipoproteins after ileal exclusion.
    Lipids. 23: 993-996

  • Li, C., Wei, F., Li, M., Liu, X., Yang, Z. and Hu, J. (2003)
    Fecal testosterone levels and reproductive cycle in male red panda (Ailurus
    fulgens). Acta Theriolgica Sinica. 23(2): 115-119

  • Li, S., Liang, Z., Wang, C., Feng, Y., Peng, X. and Gong, Y. (2010)
    Improvement of reproduction of performance I AA+ meat-Type male chicken by
    feeding with squalene. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9(3): 486-490

  • Liu, G.C.K., Ahrens Jr, E.H., Schreibman, P.H., Samuel, P., McNamara, D.J. and
    Crouse, J.R. (1975)
    Mechanism of cholesterol synthesis in man by isotope kinetics of squalene. Proc.
    Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 72: 4612–4616

  • Liu, C.K., Ahrens Jr., E.H., Schreibman, H. and Crouse, R. (1976)
    Measurement of squalene in human tissues and plasma: validation and application.
    J. Lipid Res. 17: 38–45

  • Liu, Y., Xu, X., Bi, D., Wang, X., Zhang, X., Dai, H., Chen, S. and Zhang, W. (2009)
    Influence of squalene feeding on plasma leptin, testosterone & blood pressure in
          rats. Indian J. Med. Res. 129: 150-153

  • Mantzoros, C.S. (1999)
    The role of leptin in human obesity and disease: a review of current evidence. Ann.
    Intern. Med. 130(8): 671-680

  • McKenna, R.M.B. (1950)
    The composition of surface skin fat (sebum) from the human forearm. J. Invest
    Dermatol. 15: 33-47

  • Mendoza-Nunez, V.M, Correa-Munoz, E. and Garfias- Cruz, E. A. (2006)
    Hyperleptinemia as a risk factor for high blood pressure in the elderly. Arch. Pathol.
    Lab. Med. 130: 170-175

  • Nakagawa, M., Yamaguchi, T., Fukawa, H., Ogata, J., Komiyama, S., Akiyama, S. And
    Kuwano, M. (1985)
    Potentiation by squalene of the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents against culture
    mammalian cells and murine tumor. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 76: 315-320

  • Newmark, H.L. (1997)
    Squalene, olive oil, and cancer risks: a review and hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol.
    Biomarkers Prev. 6: 1101-1103

  • Ohsawa, K., Watanabe, T., Matsukawa, R., Yoshimura, Y. and Imaeda, K. (1984)
    The possible role of squalene and its peroxide of the sebum in the occurrence of
    sunburn and protection from the damage caused by U.V. irradiation. J. Toxicol. Sci.
    9(2): 151-159

  • Owen, R.W., Haubner, R., Wurtele, G., Hull, E., Spiegelhalder, B. and Bartsch, H.
    (2004) Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention. Eur. J Cancer Prev. 1394: 319-326

  • Popják, G., Goodman, W.S., Cornforth, J.W., Cornforth, R.H. and Ryhage, R. (1961)
    Studies on the biosynthesis of cholesterol. XV. Mechanism of squalene biosynthesis
    from farnesyl pyrophosphate and from mevalonate. J. Biol. Chem. 236: 1934-1947

  • Rajesh, R. and Lakshmanan, P.T. (2009)
    Antioxidant defense of dietary squalene supplementation on sodium arsenite-
    induced oxidative stress in rat myocardium. Int. J. Biomed. Pharm. Sci. 2: 98-108

  • Rao, C.V., Newmark, H.L. and Reddy, B.S. (1998)
    Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer.
    Carcinogenesis. 19: 287-290

  • Reddy, L.H. and Couvreur, P. (2009)
    Squalene: A natural triterpene for use in disease management and therapy.
    Advanced Drug Delivery Rev. 61: 1412–1426

  • Richter, E. and Schafer, S.G. (1982)
    Effect of squalane on hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations in tissues of mice.
    J. Environ. Sci. Health. 17: 195-203

  • Roscoe, W. (2009)
    The biology of influenza and vaccination. Issues4science’s weblog http:// influenza-and-
    vaccination/ (Accessed 03 November 2011)

  • Rowland, S.J. and Robson, N.J. (1986)
    Identification of novel widely distributed sedimentary acyclic sesterpenoids. Nature.
    324: 561-563

  • Smith, T.J., Yang, G.Y., Seril, D.N., Liao, J. and Kim, S. (1998)
    Inhibition of 4 (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung
    tumorigenesis by dietary olive oil and squalene. Carcinogenesis. 19: 703-706

  • Stewart, M.E. (1992)
    Sebaceous gland lipids. Semin. Dermatol. 11: 100-105

  • Strandberg, T.E. (1990)
    Metabolic variables of cholesterol during squalene feeding in humans: comparison
    with cholestyramine treatment. J. Lipid Res. 31: 1637-1643

  • Sun, H., Wiesenborn, D., Tostenson, K., Gillespie, J., and Rayas-Duarte, P. (1997)
    Fractionation of squalene from amaranth seed oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74, 413-418

  • Thankappan, T.K. and Gopakumar, K. (1991)
    A rapid method of separation and estimation of squalene from fish liver oil using
    Iatroscan analyser. Fish. Technol. 28: 63-66

  • Tilvis, R.S. and Miettinen, T.A. (1983)
    Absorption and metabolic fate of dietary 3H squalene in rat. Lipids. 18 (3): 233-238

  • Wefers, H., Melnik, B.C., Flür, M., Bluhm, C., Lehmann, P. and Plewig, G. (1991)
    Influence of UV irradiation on the composition of human stratum corneum lipids.
    J. Invest. Dermatol. 96: 959-962

  • WHO (2008)
    Global Advisory Committee Report on Vaccine Safety,
    adjuvants/squalene/questions_and_answers/en/ (Accessed 07 January 2012)

  • Yokota, T. (1997) )
    Squalene - Treasure of the Deep. Yokota Health Institute, Tokyo, Japan

  • Zhang, Y.Y., Proenca, R., Maffei, M., Barone, M., Leopold, L. and Friedman, J. M. (1994)
    Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homolog.
    Nature. 372: 425-432

  • Zhang, F., Basinski, M.B., Beals, J.M., Briggs, S.L., Churgay, L.M., Clawson, D.K.,
    DiMarchi, R.D., Furman, T.C., Hale, J.E., Hsiung, H.M., Schoner, B.E., Smith, D.P.,
    Zhang, X.Y., Wery, J.P. and Schevitz, R.W. (1997)
    Crystal structure of the obese protein leptin- E100. Nature. 387: 206-209

  • Zhang, W., Zhang, X. and Chen, S. (2008)
    Feeding with supplemental squalene enhances the productive performances in
    boar. Anim. Reprodu. Sci. 104 (24): 445- 449

  • Zhang, Q., Yang, S., Yang, L. and Zhang, W. (2009)
    Leptin concentration and breeding and body fat of rat in response to feeding
    squalene. J. Huzhong Agricultural University. 28(1): 58-60


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