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Frequently Asked Questions on Squalene


  • Yokota T. Squalene – Treasure of the Deep. Tokyo, Japan: Yokota Health Institute, 1997.

  • Ströhle A, Hahn A. Squalen – ein bislang unbeachteter gesundheitsförderlicher Bestandteil der mediterranen Ernährung? Journal für Orthomolekulare Medizin 2002; 10: 420- 432.

  • Rowland SJ, Robson NJ. Identification of novel widely distributed sedimentary acyclic sesterpenoids. Nature 1986; 324: 561-563.

  • Perzl M, et al. Squalene-hopene cyclase from bradyrhizobium japonicum: cloning, expression, sequence analysis and comparison to other triterpenoid cyclases. Microbiology 1997; 143: 1235-1242.

  • Heller JH, et al. A new reticulo-endothelial stimulating agent from shark livers. Nature (London) 1963; 199: 904-905.

  • Richter E, Schafer SG. Effect of squalene on hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations in tissues of mice. J Environ Sci Health [B] 1982; 17: 195-203.

  • Storm HM, et al. Radioprotection of mice by dietary squalene. Lipids 1993; 28: 55-59.

  • Kohno Y, et al. Kinetic study of quenching reaction of singlet oxygen and scavenging reaction of free radical by squalene in n-butanol. Biochem Biophys Acta 1995; 1256(1): 52-56.

  • Chan P, et al. Effectiveness and safety of low-dose pravastatin and squalene, alone and in combination, in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 36: 422-427.

  • Ikekawa T, et al. Intensification of host’s immunity by squalene in sarcoma 180 bearing ICR mice. J Pharm Dyn 1983; 6: 148-151.

  • Ourisson G, et al. On the problem of ambiguity in extraterrestrial biomarkers: implications for Mars. MSc dissertation of A.D. Fortes © January 2000. Department of Geological Sciences, University College London, Jan 2000.

  • Nakagawa M, et al. Potentiation by squalene of the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents against cultured mammalian cells and murine tumor. Jap J Cancer Res (Gann) 1985; 76: 315-320.

  • Atkins RC. Squalene: Oxygenator, Cancer Fighter. Dr Atkins’ Vita-Nutrient Solution - Nature’s Answer to Drugs. UK: Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 2002: 243-244.

  • Ahn YK, Kim JH. Effects of squalene on the immune response in mice (II): Cellular and non-specific immune response and antitumor activity of squalene. Arch Pharmacal Res 1992; 15: 20-29.

  • Das B, et al. In vitro cytoprotective activity of squalene on a bone marrow versus neuroblastoma model of cisplatin-induced toxicity: implications in cancer chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer 2003; 39: 2556-2565.

  • Das B, et al. Squalene protects mice bone marrow hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells against high-dose cisplatin in vivo by restoring antioxidant balance: implications in cancer chemotherapy. Poster presentation: 97th American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, 1 - 5 April 2006, Washington, DC.

  • Rao CV, et al. Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19: 287-290.

  • Heber D, et al., eds. Targeting the action of isoprenoids and related phytochemicals to tumor. In: Nutritional Oncology. Chapter 25. San Diego: Go Academic Press, 1999.

  • Martine-Moreno JM, et al. Dietary fat, olive oi intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1994; 58: 774-780.

  • Reddy BS. Dietary fat and colon cancer: Animal model studies. Lipids 1992; 27: 807-813.

  • Kelly GS. Squalene and its potential clinical use. Altern Med Rev 1999; 4(1):2936.

  • Desai KN, et al. The preventive and therapeutic potential of the squalene containing compound, Roidex, on tumor promotion and regression. Cancer Lett 1996; 101(1): 93-96.

  • Newmark HL. Squalene, olive oil and cancer risk: a review and hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 1101-1103.

  • Newmark HL. Is squalene behind olive oil’s magic? Poster presentation at American Association for Cancer Research meeting, May 1998, Rockefeller University, New York.

  • Newmark HL. Squalene, olive oil, and cancer risk. Review and hypothesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999; 889: 193-203.

  • Smith TJ. Squalene: potential chemopreventive agent. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000; 9: 1841-1848.

  • Jurasunas S. The biological approach to breast cancer. 21 Deutscher Heilpraktikertag 27/28 March 2004. Congress Center Düsseldorf , Deutschland: 36-37.

  • Smith TJ, et al. Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis by dietary olive oil and squalene. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19: 703-706.

  • Michiaki F, et al. Inhibition by squalene of the tumor promoting activity of 12-o-tetradecanoyphorbol-13-acetate in mouse skin carcinogenesis. J Cancer 1992; 52: 950-952.

  • Nakagawa M, et al. Potentiation by squalene of the cytotoxicity of anti-cancer agents against cultured mammalian cells and murine tumor. Japan Journal of Cancer Research 1985; 76: 315-320.

  • Kato K, et al. Isoprenoid addition to Ras protein is the critical modification for its membrane association and transforming activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 6403-6407.

  • Gloor M, Karenfeld A. Effect of ultraviolet light therapy, given over a period of several weeks, on the amount and composition of the skin surface lipids. Dermatologica 1977; 154(1): 5-13.

  • Cosmetic, Fragrance and Toiletry Association (CTFA). Ability of squalene to protect against radiation injury. 19 February 1960. Submission of data by CTFA. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

  • Ikekawa T, et al. Study of antitumor activity of squalene and its related compounds. J Pharmacol Soc Jpn 1990; 10: 578-582.

  • Hamilton JA, et al. Particulate adjuvants can induce macrophage survival, DNA synthesis, and a synergistic proliferative response to GM-CSF and CSF-1. Leukocyte Biol 2000; 67: 226-232.

  • Fichtl B, et al. Effects of dietary paraffin, squalene and sucrose polyester on residue disposition and elimination of hexachlorobenzene in rats. Chem Biol Interact 1982; 1: 335-344.

  • Richter E, et al. Stimulation of the faecal excretion of 2,4,5,2’,4’,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl in rats by squalene. Xenobiotica (England) 1983; 13: 337-343.

  • Kamimura H, et al. Enhanced elimination of theophylline, phenobarbital and strychnine from the bodies of rats and mice by squalene treatment. J Pharmacobiodyn 1992; 15: 215-221.

  • Fan S, et al. Squalene inhibits sodium arsenite-induced sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. Mutat Res 1996; 368: 165-169.

  • Strandberg TE, et al. Variation of hepatic cholesterol precursors during altered flows of endogenous squalene in the rat. Biochem Biophys Acta 1989; 1001: 150-156.

  • Strandberg TE, et al. Metabolic variables of cholesterol during squalene feeding in humans: comparison with cholestyramine treatment. J Lipid Res 1990; 31: 1637-1643.

  • Gjonca A, Bobak M. Albanian paradox, another example of protective effect of Mediterranean lifestyle? Lancet 1997; 350: 1815-1817.

  • Sobel H, Marmorston J. The possible role of squalene as a protective agent in sebum. Cancer Res 1956; 16: 500-503.

  • Murakoshi M, et al. Inhibition by squalene of the tumor-promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in mouse-skin carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer 1992; 52: 950-952.

  • Ohsawa K, et al. The possible role of squalene and its peroxide of the sebum in the occurrence of sunburn and protection from the damage caused by UV irradiation. J Toxicol Sci 1984; 9: 151-159.

  • Wefers H, et al. Influences of UV irradiation on the composition of human stratum corneum lipids. J Invest Dermatol 1991; 96: 959-962.

  • McKenna RM, et al. [St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London]. The composition of the surface skin fat (sebum). J Invest Dermatol 1950; 15: 33-47.

  • Fliesler SJ, Keller RK. Isoprenoid metabolism in the vertebrate retina. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1997; 29: 877-894.

Advisory: This is not intended for the diagnosis or treatment of medical complaints. It is for information purposes only.


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