Asthma has been defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, research suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplements may decrease inflammation and improve lung function in patients with asthma. One clinical trial of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with asthma found that those who took fish oil supplements rich in EPA and DHA for 10 months had improvement in their symptoms compared to children who took a placebo pill.

An Australian study showed that eating oily fish more than once per week protects children against asthma. Omega-3 fatty acids are also useful in reducing exercise-induced asthma.